We call crude oil and petroleum fossil fuels because they are mixtures of hydrocarbons that formed from the remains of animals and plants (diatoms) that lived millions of years ago in a marine environment before the existence of dinosaurs. Over millions of years, the remains of these animals and plants were covered by layers of sand, silt, and rock. Heat and pressure from these layers turned the remains into what we now call crude oil or petroleum. The word petroleum means rock oil or oil from the earth.
Crude oil and other hydrocarbons exist in liquid or gaseous form in underground pools or reservoirs, in tiny spaces within sedimentary rocks, and near the earth’s surface in tar (or oil) sands. Petroleum products are fuels made from crude oil and hydrocarbons contained in natural gas. Petroleum products can also be made from coal, natural gas, and biomass.
After crude oil is removed from the ground, it is sent to a refinery where different parts of the crude oil are separated into useable petroleum products. These petroleum products include gasoline, distillates such as diesel fuel and heating oil, jet fuel, petrochemical feedstocks, waxes, lubricating oils, and asphalt.
A U.S. 42-gallon barrel of crude oil yields about 45 gallons of petroleum products in U.S. refineries because of refinery processing gain. This increase in volume is similar to what happens to popcorn when it is popped. A corn kernel is smaller and more dense than a popped kernel. The amount of individual products produced varies from month-to-month and year-to-year as refineries adjust production to meet market demand and to maximize profitability.
Petroleum coke (“petcoke”) is regularly produced as a by-product of crude oil refining, especially from heavy crudes commonly produced in Canada. While some forms of petcoke are useful for steel making or other speciality purposes, it is often stockpiled in large quantities as a waste product. Although the stockpiled petcoke can be combusted for heat or electricity generation, it is more carbon intensive than coal, and this along with other environmental concerns makes combustion undesirable or even prohibited by government regulation. Hence, instead of the traditional stockpiling practice, petcoke can also be converted to liquid fuels both as a means of disposal and to help meet increasing fuels demand. Recent studies have shown the technical and economic feasibility and the high fuel, energy, and carbon efficiencies of converting petcoke to chemicals and fuels
D2 is a refinery abbreviation for Gasoil. It is the second distillate from the crude, and can be used without reformers and additives. So, the first engines used D2 as fuel – before petrol cars as we know them today was invented. That is because the engine invented by a German called Diesel, requires no spark plugs. The diesel engine will ignite and combust when the pressure increases so that the heated “plug” makes it explode. Here we get the name “Diesel” – since the same principles are used in diesel engines today. However, automotive diesel that you fill has additives that the refinery will add to make the engine more efficient and also easier to start in the winter.
Base oils are used to manufacture products including lubricating greases, motor oil and metal processing fluids. Base oil is typically defined as oil with a boiling point range between 550 and 1050 F, consisting of hydrocarbons with 18 to 40 carbon atoms. This oil can be either paraffinic or naphthenic in nature depending on the chemical structure of the molecules.
Nitrogenous fertilizer, readily soluble in water, alcohols and liquid ammonia. It takes the form of white prilled, grain class 1-3.15 mm, with at least 90% of the prills covered with anti-caking agents. Prilled urea 46% is hygroscopic. Bulk density: 0.70-0.78 kg/dm3. Prilled urea 46% includes 46% of nitrogen (N) in ureic form, easily absorbed by the leaves of plants. Absorption through the root system is slower, because urea in soil is converted (as a result of enzymatic hydrolysis) into the ammonia form available for plants, and then into nitrate form.
Bitumen penetration grade 60/70 is semi-hard penetration grade bitumen using as paving grade bitumen suitable for road construction and repair conjointly for the production of asphalt pavements with below technical specifications. This grade of bitumen is mainly used in the manufacture of hot combine asphalt for bases and wearing courses. Bitumen 60/70 is the most used bitumen grade and basic material for all alternative bituminous products.
Mazut is a heavy, low quality fuel oil, used in generating plants and similar applications. In the United States and Western Europe, mazut is blended or broken down, with the end product being diesel. Mazut may be used for heating houses in the former USSR and in countries of the Far East that do not have the facilities to blend or break it down into more conventional petro-chemicals. In the West, furnaces that burn mazut are commonly called "waste oil" heaters or "waste oil" furnaces. Mazut-100 is a fuel oil that is manufactured to GOST specifications, for example GOST 10585-75, GOST 10585-99 Oil fuel. Mazut. Specifications .. Mazut is almost exclusively manufactured in the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan. This product is typically used for larger boilers in producing steam since the BTU content is high. The most important consideration when grading this fuel is the sulfur content, which can mostly be affected by the source feedstock. For shipment purposes, this product is considered a ”dirty oil” product, and because viscosity drastically affect whether it is able to be pumped, shipping has unique requirements.
Combination of light hydrocarbons produced partly from the refining of crude oil (about 40%) and partly from the processing of natural gas (about 60%). It consists primarily of propane and butane and is used mostly as a fuel for cooking, heating, lighters and other applications. It can also be used to fuel motor vehicles; there were 2,500,000 autogas LPG-powered vehicles in France and in all the world at the end of 2012. As a fuel source, LPG is considered to be cleaner than liquid hydrocarbons and much cleaner than coal, because no particles are released during its combustion.
Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines. It is colorless to straw-colored in appearance. The most commonly used fuels for commercial aviation are Jet A and Jet A-1, which are produced to a standardized international specification. The only other jet fuel commonly used in civilian turbine-engine powered aviation is Jet B, which is used for its enhanced cold-weather performance. Jet fuel is a mixture of a variety of hydrocarbons. Because the exact composition of jet fuel varies widely based on petroleum source, it is impossible to define jet fuel as a ratio of specific hydrocarbons. Jet fuel is therefore defined as a performance specification rather than a chemical compound. Furthermore, the range of molecular mass between hydrocarbons (or different carbon numbers) is defined by the requirements for the product, such as the freezing point or smoke point. Kerosene-type jet fuel (including Jet A and Jet A-1, JP-5, and JP-8) has a carbon number distribution between about 8 and 16 (carbon atoms per molecule); wide-cut or naphtha-type jet fuel (including Jet B and JP-4), between about 5 and 15.
To meet EPA standards, the petroleum industry is producing Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel, a cleanerburning diesel fuel containing a maximum 15 parts-per-million (ppm) sulfur. By June 1, 2006, 80 percent of the highway diesel fuel produced or imported will be ULSD fuel, replacing most Low Sulfur Diesel fuel which contains up to a maximum of 500 ppm sulfur. In combination with cleaner-burning diesel engines and vehicles, ULSD fuel will help to improve air quality by significantly reducing emissions.
D6 Virgin Fuel Oil is also being known as Residual Fuel Oil and is of High–Viscosity. This particular Fuel Oil requires preheating to 220–260ºF (= 104, 44–126, 66°C). D6 Virgin Fuel Oil is mostly used for generators. Recent changes in fuel quality regulation now require further refining of the D6 in order to remove the sulfur, which leads to a higher cost. Despite this recent change, D6 is still less useful because of its viscosity as well as that it needs to be pre–heated before it can be used and contains high amounts of pollutants, such as sulfur. Since it requires pre–heating, it cannot be used in small ships or boats or cars. However large ships and power plants can use the residual fuel oil. Russian D6 virgin fuel oil is a type of residual fuel, mainly used in power plants and larger ships. It is not possible to use it in smaller engines or vessels / vehicles where it is not possible to pre–heat it. D6 is its name in the USA. In other parts of the world it has other names.
EN 590 is the current standard for all automotive diesel fuel sold in the European Union member states and other European countries. This grade of fuel is also called ultra-low sulphur diesel (ULSD). All road diesel (DERV) that is now sold in the UK meets the EN 590 standards and has a compulsory 7% by volume biodiesel component blended into it, usually EN 14214 FAME biodiesel. This is optional for EN 590 fuel used as gas oil, as is the cetane content. EN 590 compliant fuels Oil include red diesel (EN 590 gas oil )and DERV diesel (EN 590 diesel).
Light Cycle Oil (LCO) is a diesel boiling range product from Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCUs). However, LCO is a poor diesel fuel blending component without further processing. Oil refining is an industrial process which involves separation, conversion and finishing. FCC centered refinery uses Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU) has the major conversion unit. FCCU is responsible for the production of petrol, LPG and Light Cycle Oil (LCO). Diesel is the most important fuel used in automobiles because of its high efficiency. The global demand for diesel is increasing than petrol but many older refineries have optimized their plant for producing more petrol than diesel. Light Cycle Oil is the diesel boiling range material, which is produced in addition to gas and petrol in the FCCU. LCO is treated in the diesel hydrotreater (DHT) unit to produce low sulphur environment friendly diesel.
87, 89, 91, and 93 Octane Gasoline Laws regulating which octane levels can be listed as premium, midgrade, or regular vary from state-to-state. Premium gas is usually considered to be any gasoline that has an octane level of 91 or higher. You’ll usually see these listed on pumps as 91 or 93. Sometimes, 93 octane will be listed as “super-premium” or “ultra.” Unleaded gasoline is usually considered to be “regular” when it is 87 octane. Some gas stations will list 89 octane as “mid grade.” A fuel’s octane will be listed on the gas pump, and regular-grade gas is usually the cheapest, while premium gas is the most expensive.
Arabian Light Crude Oil that we offer is procured from the most reliable sources of the market. Thus, buying Arabian Light Crude Oil will be the safest option for the buyers. We are enlisted among the reputed Exporters and Suppliers of Arabian Light Crude Oil from Saudi Arabia. We have developed a vast distribution network that enables us to deliver retail as well as bulk orders for Arabian Light Crude Oil within the promised timeframe.